mnkd-10q_20180930.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-Q

 

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2018

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                  to                 .

Commission file number: 000-50865

 

MannKind Corporation

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Delaware

13-3607736

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

30930 Russell Ranch Road, Suite 300

Westlake Village, California

91362

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(818) 661-5000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes      No   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes      No  

As of October 22, 2018, there were 159,597,573 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding.

 

 

 


 

 

MANNKIND CORPORATION

Form 10-Q

For the Quarterly Period Ended September 30, 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

PART I: FINANCIAL INFORMATION

3

 

 

Item 1. Financial Statements (Unaudited)

3

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets: September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017

3

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations: Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017

4

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss: Three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017

5

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows: Nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017

6

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

7

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

31

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

40

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

40

 

 

PART II: OTHER INFORMATION

41

 

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

41

Item 1A. Risk Factors

41

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

64

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

64

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

64

Item 5. Other Information

64

Item 6. Exhibits

65

 

 

SIGNATURES

68

 

2


PART 1: FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

MANNKIND CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(Unaudited)

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

 

 

September 30, 2018

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

10,446

 

 

$

43,946

 

Restricted cash

 

 

527

 

 

 

4,409

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

2,752

 

 

 

2,789

 

Inventory

 

 

2,785

 

 

 

2,657

 

Deferred costs from commercial product sales

 

 

 

 

 

405

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

3,015

 

 

 

3,010

 

Total current assets

 

 

19,525

 

 

 

57,216

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

25,632

 

 

 

26,922

 

Other assets

 

 

199

 

 

 

437

 

Total assets

 

$

45,356

 

 

$

84,575

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

5,815

 

 

$

6,984

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

13,434

 

 

 

12,449

 

Facility financing obligation

 

 

14,202

 

 

 

52,745

 

Deferred revenue, net

 

 

 

 

 

3,038

 

Deferred payments from collaboration - current

 

 

10,095

 

 

 

250

 

Recognized loss on purchase commitments - current

 

 

16,081

 

 

 

12,131

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

59,627

 

 

 

87,597

 

Note payable to related party

 

 

72,143

 

 

 

79,666

 

Accrued interest - note payable to related party

 

 

5,692

 

 

 

2,347

 

Senior convertible notes

 

 

19,133

 

 

 

24,411

 

Recognized loss on purchase commitments - long term

 

 

84,362

 

 

 

97,585

 

Deferred payments from collaboration - long term

 

 

2,638

 

 

 

500

 

Milestone rights liability

 

 

7,202

 

 

 

7,201

 

Total liabilities

 

 

250,797

 

 

 

299,307

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders' deficit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Undesignated preferred stock, $0.01 par value - 10,000,000 shares authorized;

   no shares issued or outstanding at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value - 280,000,000 shares authorized, 159,497,573

   and 119,053,414 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2018 and

   December 31, 2017, respectively

 

 

1,594

 

 

 

1,192

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

2,723,232

 

 

 

2,638,992

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(18

)

 

 

(18

)

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(2,930,249

)

 

 

(2,854,898

)

Total stockholders' deficit

 

 

(205,441

)

 

 

(214,732

)

Total liabilities and stockholders' deficit

 

$

45,356

 

 

$

84,575

 

 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

3


MANNKIND CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(Unaudited)

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Revenues:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net revenue - commercial product sales

 

$

4,387

 

 

$

1,981

 

 

$

11,542

 

 

$

4,726

 

Net revenue - collaborations

 

 

82

 

 

 

62

 

 

 

232

 

 

 

187

 

Revenue - other

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53

 

 

 

2,302

 

Total revenues

 

 

4,469

 

 

 

2,043

 

 

 

11,827

 

 

 

7,215

 

Expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of goods sold

 

 

5,303

 

 

 

4,575

 

 

 

14,406

 

 

 

12,210

 

Research and development

 

 

2,043

 

 

 

4,361

 

 

 

7,653

 

 

 

10,611

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

19,394

 

 

 

17,725

 

 

 

61,740

 

 

 

51,681

 

Property and equipment impairment

 

 

 

 

 

92

 

 

 

 

 

 

203

 

(Gain) Loss on foreign currency translation

 

 

(728

)

 

 

3,684

 

 

 

(3,107

)

 

 

12,077

 

Gain on purchase commitments

 

 

 

 

 

(215

)

 

 

 

 

 

(215

)

Total expenses

 

 

26,012

 

 

 

30,222

 

 

 

80,692

 

 

 

86,567

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(21,543

)

 

 

(28,179

)

 

 

(68,865

)

 

 

(79,352

)

Other (expense) income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change in fair value of warrant liability

 

 

 

 

 

(1,289

)

 

 

 

 

 

5,488

 

Interest income

 

 

144

 

 

 

65

 

 

 

305

 

 

 

178

 

Interest expense on notes

 

 

(993

)

 

 

(2,310

)

 

 

(4,496

)

 

 

(7,438

)

Interest expense on note payable to related party

 

 

(1,074

)

 

 

(1,173

)

 

 

(3,234

)

 

 

(2,608

)

Loss on extinguishment of debt

 

 

(712

)

 

 

 

 

 

(765

)

 

 

(830

)

Other income

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

71

 

 

 

13

 

Total other expense

 

 

(2,625

)

 

 

(4,707

)

 

 

(8,119

)

 

 

(5,197

)

Loss before provision for income taxes

 

 

(24,168

)

 

 

(32,886

)

 

 

(76,984

)

 

 

(84,549

)

Income tax expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(240

)

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(24,168

)

 

$

(32,886

)

 

$

(77,224

)

 

$

(84,549

)

Net loss per share - basic and diluted

 

$

(0.16

)

 

$

(0.31

)

 

$

(0.56

)

 

$

(0.84

)

Shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share

 

 

153,597

 

 

 

104,703

 

 

 

138,307

 

 

 

100,136

 

 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

4


MANNKIND CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(Unaudited)

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Net loss

 

$

(24,168

)

 

$

(32,886

)

 

$

(77,224

)

 

$

(84,549

)

Other comprehensive income:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative translation gain (loss)

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

(1

)

 

 

4

 

Comprehensive loss

 

$

(24,168

)

 

$

(32,885

)

 

$

(77,225

)

 

$

(84,545

)

 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

5


MANNKIND CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(Unaudited)

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(77,224

)

 

$

(84,549

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash (used in) provided by operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation, amortization and accretion

 

 

2,489

 

 

 

2,707

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

5,715

 

 

 

3,763

 

Loss on extinguishment of debt, net

 

 

765

 

 

 

830

 

(Gain) Loss on sale, abandonment/disposal or impairment of property and equipment

 

 

(10

)

 

 

179

 

(Gain) Loss on foreign currency translation

 

 

(3,107

)

 

 

12,077

 

Gain on purchase commitments

 

 

 

 

 

(215

)

Interest on note payable to related party

 

 

3,345

 

 

 

2,608

 

Change in fair value of warrant liability

 

 

 

 

 

(5,488

)

Write-off of inventory

 

 

1,792

 

 

 

1,793

 

Other, net

 

 

106

 

 

 

44

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

(74

)

 

 

(1,502

)

Receivable from Sanofi

 

 

 

 

 

30,557

 

Inventory

 

 

(1,920

)

 

 

(2,591

)

Deferred costs from commercial product sales

 

 

 

 

 

(234

)

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

(5

)

 

 

1,303

 

Other assets

 

 

200

 

 

 

166

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(1,169

)

 

 

2,099

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

560

 

 

 

2,889

 

Deferred revenue

 

 

 

 

 

(398

)

Deferred payments from collaborations

 

 

11,983

 

 

 

(187

)

Recognized loss on purchase commitments

 

 

(6,165

)

 

 

(648

)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(62,719

)

 

 

(34,797

)

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net proceeds from sale of asset held for sale

 

 

 

 

 

16,651

 

Proceeds from sale of property and equipment

 

 

10

 

 

 

24

 

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

 

10

 

 

 

16,675

 

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from direct placement of common stock

 

 

28,000

 

 

 

 

Issuance cost associated with direct placement

 

 

(1,610

)

 

 

 

Principal payments on facility financing obligation

 

 

(2,000

)

 

 

(4,000

)

Borrowings on note payable to related party

 

 

 

 

 

19,429

 

Payment of employment taxes related to vested restricted stock units

 

 

(184

)

 

 

(110

)

Proceeds from issuance of common stock pursuant to at-the-market issuance

 

 

819

 

 

 

 

Issuance cost of at-the-market transactions

 

 

(33

)

 

 

 

Proceeds from market price stock purchase plan

 

 

335

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

25,327

 

 

 

15,319

 

NET DECREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND

   RESTRICTED CASH

 

 

(37,382

)

 

 

(2,803

)

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH, BEGINNING OF

   PERIOD

 

 

48,355

 

 

 

22,895

 

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH, END OF PERIOD

 

$

10,973

 

 

$

20,092

 

SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOWS DISCLOSURES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest paid in cash, net of amounts capitalized

 

$

2,895

 

 

$

6,373

 

NON-CASH INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payment of note obligations through common stock issuance

 

$

42,912

 

 

$

11,000

 

Payment of note payable to related party through common stock issuance

 

$

8,160

 

 

$

 

Capitalization of interest on note payable to related party

 

$

 

 

$

10,716

 

Accrued but unpaid debt issuance costs

 

$

146

 

 

$

 

Reclassification of warrant liability to Additional paid-in capital

 

$

 

 

$

1,893

 

 

See notes to condensed consolidated financial statements.  

6


MANNKIND CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

(Unaudited)

1. Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of MannKind Corporation and its subsidiaries (“MannKind,” the “Company,” “we” or “us”), have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. The information included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017 filed with the SEC on February 27, 2018 (the “Annual Report”).

In the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting only of normal, recurring adjustments, considered necessary for a fair presentation of the results of these interim periods have been included. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 may not be indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates or assumptions. Management considers many factors in selecting appropriate financial accounting policies, and in developing the estimates and assumptions that are used in the preparation of the financial statements. Management must apply significant judgment in this process. The more significant estimates reflected in these accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include revenue recognition and gross-to-net adjustments, product return, assessing long-lived assets for impairment, clinical trial expenses, inventory costing and recoverability, recognized loss on purchase commitments, milestone rights liability, stock-based compensation and the determination of the provision for income taxes and corresponding deferred tax assets and liabilities and the valuation allowance recorded against net deferred tax assets.

Business — MannKind is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of inhaled therapeutic products for diseases such as diabetes and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The Company’s only approved product, Afrezza (insulin human) Inhalation Powder, is a rapid-acting inhaled insulin that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) in June 2014 to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes. Afrezza became available by prescription in United States retail pharmacies in February 2015.  Currently, the Company promotes Afrezza to endocrinologists and certain high-prescribing primary care physicians in the United States through its own specialty sales force. Outside of the United States, subject to receipt of the necessary foreign regulatory approvals, the Company’s strategy is to establish regional partnerships for the commercialization of Afrezza in foreign jurisdictions where there are commercial opportunities.

Basis of Presentation - The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. The Company is not currently profitable and has rarely generated positive net cash flow from operations. As of September 30, 2018, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $2.9 billion. In order to conform to the 2018 presentation in the Statement of Cash Flows, we reclassified approximately $1.8 million from changes in inventory to inventory write-off in 2017 and $0.2 million from other to loss on sale, abandonment/disposal or impairment of property and equipment in 2017.

At September 30, 2018, the Company’s capital resources consisted of cash and cash equivalents of $10.4 million and $0.5 million of restricted cash. The Company expects to continue to incur significant expenditures to support commercial manufacturing, sales and marketing of Afrezza, collaboration work and the development of product candidates in the Company’s pipeline. The facility agreement (as amended, the “Facility Agreement”) with Deerfield Private Design Fund II, L.P. and Deerfield Private Design International II, L.P. (collectively, “Deerfield”) that resulted in the issuance of 9.75% Senior Convertible Notes due 2019 (“2019 notes”) and 8.75% Senior Convertible Notes due 2019 (“Tranche B notes”) (see Note 7 — Borrowings) requires the Company to maintain at least $20.0 million in cash and cash equivalents as of October 31, 2018 and December 31, 2018 and $25.0 million in cash and cash equivalents as of the end of each fiscal quarter after December 31, 2018. 

As of September 30, 2018, the Company had $104.7 million principal amount of outstanding borrowings. The Company entered into certain transactions related to these borrowings during 2017 and 2018 that are more fully described in Note 6 — Related-Party Arrangements, Note 7 – Borrowings.

7


The Company’s currently available cash and financing sources will not be sufficient to continue to meet its current and anticipated cash requirements. The Company plans to raise additional capital, whether through a sale of equity or debt securities, strategic business collaboration agreements with other companies, the establishment of other funding facilities, licensing arrangements, asset sales or other means, in order to continue the development and commercialization of Afrezza and other product candidates and to support its other ongoing activities. The Company cannot provide assurances that such additional capital will be available on acceptable terms or at all. Successful completion of these plans is dependent on factors outside of the Company’s control.  As such, management cannot be certain that such plans will be effectively implemented within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Reverse Stock-Split - On March 1, 2017, following stockholder approval, the Company’s board of directors approved a 1-for-5 reverse stock split of the Company’s outstanding common stock. On March 1, 2017, the Company filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware a Certificate of Amendment of the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (the “Charter Amendment”) to effect the 1-for-5 reverse stock split of the Company’s outstanding common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”) . The Company’s common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Market on a split-adjusted basis when the market opened on March 3, 2017.

As a result, prior to March 3, 2017, all common stock share amounts included in these condensed consolidated financial statements have been retroactively reduced by a factor of five, and all common stock per share amounts have been increased by a factor of five, with the exception of the Company’s common stock par value.

Principles of Consolidation – The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated.

Segment Information – Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision-maker in making decisions regarding resource allocation and assessing performance. To date, the Company has viewed its operations and manages its business as one segment operating in the United States of America.

 

Revenue RecognitionThe Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“the new revenue guidance”), on January 1, 2018. Under Topic 606, the Company recognizes revenue when its customers obtain control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. See below for more information about the impact of adoption of the new revenue guidance.

 

To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that are within the scope of Topic 606, the Company performs the following five steps: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer, (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determine the transaction price, (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The Company only applies the five-step model to arrangements that meet the definition of a contract under Topic 606, including when it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer.

 

At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of Topic 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within each contract, determines those that are performance obligations, and assesses whether each promised good or service is distinct. The Company has three types of contracts with customers: contracts with wholesale distributors and specialty pharmacies for commercial product sales, collaboration arrangements, and arrangements with parties to whom it has sold intellectual property.

 

Revenue Recognition – Net Revenue – Commercial Product Sales – The Company sells Afrezza to a limited number of wholesale distributors and specialty pharmacies in the U.S. (collectively, its “Customers”). These Customers subsequently resell the Company’s product to retail pharmacies and certain medical centers or hospitals. Specialty pharmacies sell directly to patients. In addition to distribution agreements with Customers, the Company enters into arrangements with health care providers and payors that provide for government mandated and/or privately negotiated rebates, chargebacks, and discounts with respect to the purchase of the Company’s product.

The Company recognizes revenue on product sales when the Customer obtains control of the Company's product, which occurs at a point in time (based on the terms of the relevant contracts which are at delivery for wholesale distributors and at shipment for specialty pharmacies).  Product revenues are recorded net of applicable reserves for variable consideration, including discounts and allowances.

 

8


Voucher Program – Under the voucher program, potential new patients are given vouchers which they can provide to retailers for a free product. The retailers provide the product to the patient for free and pay the wholesaler for the product, who pays the Company.  The retailers submit the vouchers to a program administrator who pays the retailer for the product.  The administrator then invoices the Company for the amount of vouchers paid plus a fee. Accordingly, on a net basis, it is not probable that the Company will receive the consideration to which it is entitled from the sale of product under the voucher program. Therefore, the Company excludes such amounts from both gross and net revenue.  The cost of product associated with the voucher program is included in cost of goods sold.

 

Reserves for Variable Consideration — Revenues from product sales are recorded at the net sales price (transaction price), which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established. Components of variable consideration include trade discounts and allowances, product returns, provider chargebacks and discounts, government rebates, payor rebates, and other incentives, such as voluntary patient assistance, and other allowances that are offered within contracts between the Company and its Customers, payors, and other indirect customers relating to the Company’s sale of its product. These reserves, as detailed below, are based on the amounts earned, or to be claimed on the related sales, and result in a reduction of accounts receivable or establishment of a current liability.  

 

Where appropriate, these estimates take into consideration a range of possible outcomes which are probability-weighted in accordance with the expected value method in Topic 606 for relevant factors such as current contractual and statutory requirements, specific known market events and trends, industry data, and forecasted customer buying and payment patterns. Overall, these reserves reduce recognized revenue to the Company’s best estimates of the amount of consideration to which it is entitled based on the terms of the respective underlying contracts.

 

The amount of variable consideration that is included in the transaction price may be constrained, and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized under the contract will not occur in a future period. The Company’s analyses also contemplate application of the constraint in accordance with the guidance, under which it determined a material reversal of revenue would not occur in a future period for the estimates detailed below as of September 30, 2018 and, therefore, the transaction price was not reduced further during the nine months ended September 30, 2018. Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from the Company’s estimates. If actual results in the future vary from the Company’s estimates, the Company will adjust these estimates, which would affect net revenue – commercial product sales and earnings in the period such variances become known.

 

Trade Discounts and Allowances — The Company generally provides Customers with discounts which include incentive fees, such as prompt pay discounts, that are explicitly stated in the Company’s contracts and are recorded as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue is recognized. In addition, the Company compensates (through trade discounts and allowances) its Customers for sales order management, data, and distribution services. However, the Company has determined such services received to date are not distinct from the Company’s sale of product to the Customers and, therefore, these payments have been recorded as a reduction of revenue and a reduction to accounts receivable, net.

 

Product Returns — Consistent with industry practice, the Company generally offers Customers a right of return for unopened product that has been purchased from the Company for a period beginning six months prior to and ending twelve months after its expiration date, which lapses upon shipment to a patient. The Company estimates the amount of its product sales that may be returned by its Customers and records this estimate as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue is recognized, as well as reductions to accounts receivable, net. The Company currently estimates product returns using available industry data and its own sales information, including its visibility into the inventory remaining in the distribution channel. The Company’s current return reserve rate is estimated to be 3.8%.  

 

Provider Chargebacks and Discounts — Chargebacks for fees and discounts to providers represent the estimated obligations resulting from contractual commitments to sell products to qualified healthcare providers at prices lower than the list prices charged to Customers who directly purchase the product from the Company. Customers charge the Company for the difference between what they pay for the product and the ultimate selling price to the qualified healthcare providers. These reserves are established in the same period that the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability which is recorded in accrued expenses and other current liabilities. Chargeback amounts are generally determined at the time of resale to the qualified healthcare provider by Customers, and the Company generally issues credits for such amounts within a few weeks of the Customer’s notification to the Company of the resale. Reserves for chargebacks consist of credits that the Company expects to issue for units that remain in the distribution channel inventories at each reporting period-end that the Company expects will be sold to qualified healthcare providers, and chargebacks that Customers have claimed, but for which the Company has not yet issued a credit.

 

9


Government Rebates — The Company is subject to discount obligations under state Medicaid programs and Medicare. These reserves are recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability which is included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities. For Medicare, the Company also estimates the number of patients in the prescription drug coverage gap for whom the Company will owe an additional liability under the Medicare Part D program. The Company’s liability for these rebates consists of invoices received for claims from prior quarters that have not been paid or for which an invoice has not yet been received, estimates of claims for the current quarter, and estimated future claims that will be made for product that has been recognized as revenue, but which remains in the distribution channel inventories at the end of each reporting period.

 

Payor Rebates — The Company contracts with certain private payor organizations, primarily insurance companies and pharmacy benefit managers, for the payment of rebates with respect to utilization of its products. The Company estimates these rebates and records such estimates in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability which is included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities.

 

Other Incentives — Other incentives which the Company offers include voluntary patient support programs, such as the Company's co-pay assistance program, which are intended to provide financial assistance to qualified commercially-insured patients with prescription drug co-payments required by payors. The calculation of the accrual for co-pay assistance is based on an estimate of claims and the cost per claim that the Company expects to receive associated with product that has been recognized as revenue, but remains in the distribution channel inventories at the end of each reporting period. The adjustments are recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a current liability which is included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities.

 

As of December 31, 2017, prior to the adoption of Topic 606, the ending balance for net deferred revenue, was $3.0 million, on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets, which is presented net of $1.5 million in gross-to-net revenue adjustments. On January 1, 2018, deferred revenue was adjusted to zero as a result of the adoption of Topic 606 as disclosed below. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, shipments to three wholesale distributors represented 90% and 89%, respectively, of total shipments, compared with 92% for each of the same two periods in 2017.

 

Revenue Recognition – Net Revenue – Collaborations — The Company enters into out-licensing agreements under which the Company licenses certain rights to its product candidates to third parties. The terms of these arrangements may include payment to the Company of one or more of the following: non-refundable, up-front license fees; development, regulatory, and commercial milestone payments; payments for manufacturing supply services the Company provides; and royalties on net sales of licensed products and sublicenses of the rights. Each of these payments may result in license, collaborations, or other revenue, except revenue from royalties on net sales of licensed products, which would be classified as royalty revenue.

 

As part of the accounting for these arrangements, the Company must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation identified in the contract. The Company uses key assumptions to determine the stand-alone selling price, which may include forecasted revenues, development timelines, reimbursement rates for personnel costs, discount rates, and probabilities of technical and regulatory success.

 

Licenses of Intellectual Property — If the license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the customer and the customer is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees. The Company will evaluate the measure of progress for each reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue recognition. Revenue from licenses of intellectual property is included in Net revenue - collaborations in the condensed consolidated statement of operations.

 

10


Milestone Payments — At the inception of each arrangement that includes development milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company or the customer, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, for which the Company recognizes revenue as, or when, the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company will re-evaluate the probability of achievement of such development milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect license, collaborations, other revenue, and earnings in the period of adjustment.

 

Manufacturing Supply Services — Arrangements that include a promise for future supply of drug substance or drug product for either clinical development or commercial supply, at the customer’s discretion, are generally considered as options. The Company assesses if these options provide a material right to the licensee and, if so, they are accounted for as separate performance obligations. If the Company is entitled to additional payments when the licensee exercises these options, any additional payments are recorded in license, collaborations, or other revenue when the customer obtains control of the goods, which is upon delivery.

 

Royalties — For licensing arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). For sales of intellectual property that include sales-based royalties, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration that it will receive from the sales-based royalty. The Company has not recognized any royalty revenue in 2017 or 2018 resulting from the sale of its intellectual property which is more fully described in Note 9, Sale of Intellectual Property.

Revenue Recognition — Revenue —  Other — Revenue-other consists of revenue from revenue from research and development work on behalf of a third party as well as bulk insulin sales.   For the nine months ended September 30, 2017, revenue – other consists of $2.3 million of revenue from bulk insulin sales and sale of intellectual property to Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical Industrial Development Co. Ltd. (“Fosun”) which is more fully described in Note 9 – Sale of Intellectual Property.    

Cost of Goods Sold — A significant component of cost of goods sold is current period manufacturing costs in excess of costs capitalized into inventory (excess capacity costs).  These costs, in addition to the impact of the annual revaluation of inventory to standard costs (and the annual revaluation of deferred costs of commercial sales to standard costs in 2017), and write-offs of inventory (and write-offs of deferred costs of commercial sales in 2017) are recorded as expenses in the period in which they are incurred, rather than as a portion of inventory costs. Cost of goods sold also includes the standard cost related to Afrezza sold during the period and related variances and realized currency gain or loss in connection with the Amphastar insulin contract. The cost of goods sold also excludes the write off of cost of insulin held in inventory at the end of 2015.

Restricted Cash – The Company records restricted cash when cash and cash equivalents are restricted as to withdrawal or usage. The Company presents amounts of restricted cash that will be available for use within 12 months of the reporting date as restricted cash in current assets. Restricted cash amounts that will not be available for use in the Company’s operations within 12 months of the reporting date are presented as restricted cash in long term assets.

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts — Accounts receivable are recorded at the invoiced amount and are not interest bearing. Accounts receivable are presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts if there are estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments. The Company makes ongoing assumptions relating to the collectability of its accounts receivable in its calculation of the allowance for doubtful accounts. Accounts receivable are also presented net of an allowance for product returns and trade discounts and allowances because the Company’s customers have the right of setoff for these amounts against the related accounts receivable.

Inventories — Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. The Company determines the cost of inventory using the first-in, first-out, or FIFO, method. The Company capitalizes inventory costs associated with the Company’s products based on management’s judgment that future economic benefits are expected to be realized; otherwise, such costs are expensed as incurred as cost of goods sold. The Company periodically analyzes its inventory levels to identify inventory that may expire or has a cost basis in excess of its estimated realizable value and writes down such inventories, as appropriate. In addition, the Company’s products are subject to strict quality control and monitoring which the Company performs throughout the manufacturing process. If certain batches or units of product no longer meet quality specifications or may become obsolete or are forecasted to become obsolete due to expiration, the Company will record a charge to write down such unmarketable inventory to its estimated net realizable value. The cost of goods sold also excludes the write off of insulin held in inventory at the end of 2015.

11


Leases – The Company records rent expense for leases that contain scheduled rent increases on a straight-line basis over the lease term which begins with the point at which the Company obtains control and possession of the leased property.

Recognized Loss on Purchase Commitments — The Company assesses whether losses on long term purchase commitments should be accrued. Losses that are expected to arise from firm, non-cancellable, commitments for the future purchases are recognized unless recoverable. When making the assessment, the Company also considers whether it is able to renegotiate with its vendors. The recognized loss on purchase commitments is reduced as inventory items are received. If, subsequent to an accrual, a purchase commitment is successfully renegotiated, the gain is recognized in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations. The liability balance of the recognized loss on purchase commitments is $100.4 million as of September 30, 2018.   No new contracts were identified in 2018 or 2017 that required a new loss on purchase commitment accrual.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments — The Company applies various valuation approaches in determining the fair value of its financial assets and liabilities within a hierarchy that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about the inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability and are developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. The fair value hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the source of inputs as follows:

 

Level 1 — Quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets.

 

Level 2 — Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations whose inputs are observable or whose significant value drivers are observable.

 

Level 3 — Significant inputs to the valuation model are unobservable.

 

Contingencies — The Company records a loss contingency for a liability when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. These accruals represent management’s best estimate of probable loss. Disclosure also is provided when it is reasonably possible that a loss will be incurred or when it is reasonably possible that the amount of a loss will exceed the recorded provision. On a quarterly basis, the Company reviews the status of each significant matter and assesses its potential financial exposure. Significant judgment is required in both the determination of probability and the determination as to whether an exposure is reasonably estimable. Because of uncertainties related to these matters, accruals are based only on the best information available at the time. As additional information becomes available, the Company reassesses the potential liability related to pending claims and litigation and may revise its estimates.

 

Stock-Based Compensation — Share-based payments to employees, including grants of stock options, restricted stock units, performance-based awards and the compensatory elements of employee stock purchase plans, are recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of operations based upon the fair value of the awards at the grant date subject to an estimated forfeiture rate. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option valuation model to estimate the grant date fair value of employee stock options and the compensatory elements of employee stock purchase plans. Restricted stock units are valued based on the market price on the grant date. The Company evaluates stock awards with performance conditions as to the probability that the performance conditions will be met and estimates the date at which the performance conditions will be met in order to properly recognize stock-based compensation expense over the requisite service period.

Clinical Trial Expenses — Clinical trial expenses, which are primarily reflected in research and development expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations, result from obligations under contracts with vendors, consultants and clinical site agreements in connection with conducting clinical trials. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment flows that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided to the Company under such contracts. The appropriate level of trial expenses are reflected in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements by matching period expenses with period services and efforts expended. These expenses are recorded according to the progress of the trial as measured by patient progression and the timing of various aspects of the trial. Clinical trial accrual estimates are determined through discussions with internal clinical personnel and outside service providers as to the progress or state of completion of trials, or the services completed. Service provider status is then compared to the contractually obligated fee to be paid for such services. During the course of a clinical trial, the Company may adjust the rate of clinical expense recognized if actual results differ from management’s estimates.

12


Net Income (Loss) Per Share of Common Stock — Basic net income or loss per share excludes dilution for potentially dilutive securities and is computed by dividing net income or loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income or loss per share reflects the potential dilution under the treasury method that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock. For periods where the Company has presented a net loss, potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share as they would be anti-dilutive.

The computation of basic and diluted net loss per share for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 excludes the common stock equivalents of the following potentially dilutive securities because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive:

 

 

 

September 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Vesting of restricted stock units

 

 

1,169,340

 

 

 

1,147,688

 

Employee stock purchase plan

 

 

97,598

 

 

 

142,888

 

Exercise of common stock options

 

 

11,431,526

 

 

 

7,183,837

 

Conversion of convertible notes into common stock

 

 

3,629,627

 

 

 

814,561

 

Conversion of convertible related party notes into common

   stock

 

 

21,909,541

 

 

 

 

Exercise of common stock warrants

 

 

31,856

 

 

 

31,856

 

Exercise of warrants associated with direct placement

 

 

14,000,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52,269,488

 

 

 

9,320,830

 

 

Impact of Adoption of the New Revenue GuidanceThe Company applied the new revenue guidance using the modified retrospective approach to all contracts with the cumulative effect of initial application recognized as of January 1, 2018. Revenue amounts and comparative information prior to this adoption date have not been restated and continue to be accounted for under the previous accounting guidance.

 

The previous accounting guidance required the Company to reliably estimate returns in order to recognize revenue upon shipment. While the Company could estimate returns within a range, it was not sufficiently precise to meet those requirements. Accordingly, under the previous guidance, the Company deferred recognition of revenue on Afrezza product deliveries to wholesalers until the right of return no longer existed, which occurred at the earlier of the time Afrezza was dispensed from pharmacies to patients or expiration of the right of return. Therefore, for deliveries to wholesalers, the Company recognized revenue based on estimated Afrezza patient prescriptions dispensed, a sell-through model.

 

Upon adoption of the new revenue guidance, the Company moved from the sell-through model to a sell-to model for revenue related to commercial sales of Afrezza to wholesalers and now records revenue when its customers take control of the product along with an estimate of potential returns as variable consideration. For sales of Afrezza to specialty pharmacies, the Company previously recognized revenue at the time of shipment because specialty pharmacies generally purchase on demand and estimated returns are minimal. Therefore, there was no impact upon adoption for sales to specialty pharmacies.

 

Additionally, the Company has historically entered into collaborative agreements and sales of intellectual property to third parties under which periodic payments have been received. In February 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-05 Clarifying the Scope of Asset Derecognition Guidance and Accounting for Partial Sales of Nonfinancial Assets to ASC Subtopic 610-20, Other Income-Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets which further clarified the new revenue recognition guidance under ASC Topic 606. The Company adopted the guidance on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method. There was no impact upon adoption related to these arrangements.  These transactions are more fully described in Note 8 - Collaborative Arrangements and Note 9 - Sale of Intellectual Property.

13


The cumulative effect of the changes made to the condensed consolidated January 1, 2018 balance sheet for the adoption of the new revenue guidance was as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

Balance at

December 31, 2017

 

 

Adjustments

due to new

revenue

guidance

 

 

 

Balance at

January 1, 2018

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

$

2,789

 

 

$

(111

)

(1)

 

$

2,678

 

Deferred costs from commercial product

   sales

 

 

405

 

 

 

(405

)

(2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accrued expenses and other current

   liabilities

 

$

12,449

 

 

$

649

 

(3)

 

$

13,098

 

Deferred revenue, net

 

 

3,038

 

 

 

(3,038

)

(4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated deficit

 

$

(2,854,898

)

 

$

1,873

 

(5)

 

$

(2,853,025

)

 

 

(1)

To establish a reserve for product returns

 

(2)

To eliminate deferred costs from commercial product sales previously required by the sell-through method

 

(3)

To record additional accrual for estimated voucher payments related to inventory remaining in the distribution channel at January 1, 2018

 

(4)

To eliminate deferred revenue previously required by the sell-through method

 

(5)

To record the net impact of (1)-(4) in opening accumulated deficit

 

In accordance with the new revenue guidance, the disclosure of the impact of adoption on the condensed consolidated balance sheet and the condensed consolidated statement of operations and cash flows was as follows (in thousands):

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the nine months ended September 30, 2018

 

 

 

As Reported

 

 

Adjustments

 

 

Balances without

adoption of Topic

606

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

$

2,752

 

 

$

417

 

 

$

3,169

 

Deferred costs from commercial product

   sales

 

 

 

 

 

763

 

 

 

763

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accrued expenses and other current

   liabilities

 

$

13,434

 

 

$

(588

)

 

$

12,846

 

Deferred revenue, net

 

 

 

 

 

3,601

 

 

 

3,601

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated deficit

 

$

(2,930,249

)

 

$

(1,833

)

 

$

(2,932,082

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statement of

   Operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the nine months ended September 30, 2018

 

 

 

As Reported

 

 

Adjustments

 

 

Balances without

adoption of Topic

606

 

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net revenue - commercial product sales

 

$

11,542

 

 

$

(778

)

 

$

10,764

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of goods sold

 

$

14,406

 

 

$

(975

)

 

$

13,431

 

Net loss

 

 

(77,224

)

 

 

(196

)

 

 

(77,420

)

14


 

 

 

For the three months ended September 30, 2018

 

 

 

As Reported

 

 

Adjustments

 

 

Balances without

adoption of Topic

606

 

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net revenue - commercial product sales

 

$

4,387

 

 

$

(654

)

 

$

3,733

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of goods sold

 

$

5,303

 

 

$

(790

)

 

$

4,513

 

Net loss

 

 

(24,168

)

 

 

(137

)

 

 

(24,305

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the nine months ended September 30, 2018

 

 

 

As Reported

 

 

Adjustments

 

 

Balances without

adoption of Topic

606

 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

 

(77,224

)

 

$

(196

)

 

$

(77,420

)

Change in:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

(74

)

 

 

111

 

 

 

37

 

Deferred costs from commercial product

   sales

 

 

 

 

 

358

 

 

 

358

 

Accrued expenses and other current

   liabilities

 

 

560

 

 

 

(588

)

 

 

(28

)

Deferred revenue, net

 

 

 

 

 

(563

)

 

 

(563

)

Cash (used in) provided by operating

   activities

 

 

(62,719

)

 

 

(878

)

 

 

(63,597

)

 

Recently Issued Accounting Standards – From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) or other standard setting bodies that are adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The new standard requires that all leasees recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from operating leases on the balance sheet and disclose qualitative and quantitative information about its leasing arrangements. A lessee should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. In transition, lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. The new standard will be effective on January 1, 2019 and will result in an increase of assets and liabilities of approximately $6.0 million.  

On June 20, 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Compensation—Stock-based compensation (Topic 718) Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The new standard simplifies the account for share-based payments made to nonemployees for goods and services as most of the new guidance on such payments to nonemployees would be aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. The new standard will be effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the adoption of this ASU will have on its condensed consolidated financial statements.

2. Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable, net consists of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

September 30,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

Accounts receivable, gross

 

$

3,944

 

 

$

2,842

 

Wholesaler distribution fees and prompt pay

   discounts

 

 

(775

)

 

 

(53

)

Reserve for returns

 

 

(417

)

 

 

 

Accounts receivable, net

 

$

2,752

 

 

$

2,789

 

15


As of December 31, 2017 the Company did not have a return reserve as the Company was on the sell-through method (as described in Note 1 – Description of Business and Significant Accounting Policies).

As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the allowance for doubtful accounts was de minimis. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Company had three wholesale distributors representing approximately 94% and 93% of gross accounts receivable, respectively.

3. Inventories

Inventories consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

September 30,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

Raw materials

 

$

951

 

 

$

572

 

Work-in-process

 

 

732

 

 

 

1,273

 

Finished goods

 

 

1,102

 

 

 

812

 

Total inventory

 

$

2,785

 

 

$

2,657

 

 

Work-in-process and finished goods as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 include conversion costs but not all material costs because much of the materials used in its production were previously written off.

 

The Company analyzed its inventory levels to identify inventory that may expire or has a cost basis in excess of its estimated realizable value. The Company performed an assessment of projected sales and evaluated the lower of cost or net realizable value and the potential excess inventory on hand at September 30, 2018. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 the Company recorded a $1.0 million and $1.8 million write-off, respectively.  

4. Property and Equipment

Property and equipment consist of the following (in thousands):

 

 

 

Estimated Useful

Life (Years)

 

 

September 30,

2018

 

 

December 31,

2017

 

Land

 

 

 

 

$

875

 

 

$

875

 

Buildings

 

39-40

 

 

 

17,389

 

 

 

17,389

 

Building improvements

 

5-40

 

 

 

34,957

 

 

 

34,957

 

Machinery and equipment

 

3-15

 

 

 

62,615

 

 

 

62,681

 

Furniture, fixtures and office equipment

 

5-10

 

 

 

3,106

 

 

 

3,556

 

Computer equipment and software

 

 

3

 

 

 

8,416

 

 

 

8,416